In Europe, mostly nocturnal due to human presence; young bears more active in day before having negative experiences with humans. Often build day beds for resting in hidden places with good visibility near feeding locations Pasitschniak-Arts Have a yearly cycle of four main behavioral and biochemical changes. No territory defensebut "personal space" vigorously defended by prompt attack.
Brown Bear audioprovided by BBC. Males and females occupy overlapping home ranges. Young female disperse to home ranges 9. Craighead Seasonal movements to areas with abundant food and den sites Garshelis May resemble a migration as bears travel along established routes May travel 20 km 12 mi in 12 hours.
Aggression Craighead et al Pasitschniak-Arts In a study of Grizzly Bears at Yellowstone National Park Females display 7 times more aggressive attacks and threat behaviors towards males than towards females Both male and female bears react aggressively to intrusion into their "personal space" No obvious to humans aggression by another bear triggers this response.
Male infanticide exists, but is not a significant cause of cub mortality. When fighting, opponents struck in chest and shoulder with paws; bites directed towards head and neck. Olfaction Scent Marking Relies mainly on a sense of smell for information about the environment. Pasitschniak-Arts Many researchers think bears do not mark a territory with scats as do many other carnivores. WeberCraighead Chuffing - "popping" noise made with lips and cheeks while exhaling Both sexes and all ages use Brown Bear audioprovided by BBC.
Hibernation Denning Dens are excavated by males and females as early as September or immediately before use in November. Dens in dug earth have a tunnel about 4 feet long leading to a chamber 5 feet in diameter Murie Some dens have no entrance tunnel.
Garshelis Onset of hibernation spurred by length of day and often by a snow storm. Servheen Rocky Mountains den sites: Have deep snow that doesn't melt in temporary winter thaws Are on steep or moderately steep slopes Females and cubs may be vulnerable to snowmobile disturbance during denning and immediately after denning.
Podruzny et al In Croatia, Dens built in rock cavities, under tree roots, in hollow trees, on the ground under conifers.
Locomotion Craighead et al Weber Favored gait is a slow shuffle. Undisturbed bear walks 5. Observations by Murie at McKinley National Park: Caribou populations are culled by grizzlys - calves, old, diseased, and remains of wolf-killed carcasses all enrich Grizzly's diets. Moose calves preyed upon by grizzlys; a female moose attacks bears to protect calf Grizzlys rarely have an opportunity to kill Dall Sheep; carcasses of these sheep occasionally add to the grizzly diet Ground squirrels often caught above ground and below, in burrows Considerable effort sometimes required, lasting up to 40 minutes in one observation Whitebark Pine habitat vital to grizzly survival in Yellowstone National Park Podruzny et al Habitat serves as refuge.
All rights reserved. Snow Brown bears like to slide and roll down snowy slopes.The Alaska Peninsula brown bear or "peninsular grizzly" is a colloquial nomenclature for a brown bear that lives in the coastal regions of southern Alaskaalthough according to other sources, it is a population of the mainland brown bear subspecies Ursus arctos horribilis or the Kodiak bear subspecies U.
Biologists maintain that coastal ones are truly brown bears.
Kodiak Bear Fact Sheet
However, it is considered correct to place all North American members of U. Prized by hunters for their skulls and hides, up to of Alaska's 1, brown bears killed yearly by hunters come from the Alaska Peninsula. To hunt this large bear, hunters must follow a variety of regulations, including bear bag limits, hunting fees and proper rifles. The Alaska Peninsula brown bear's name most likely arose because, untilit was considered a different species from the inland grizzly bear.
It was never considered closer to European brown bears than inland grizzlies, but was given a different name, due to the size and color differences of coastal browns and inland grizzlies. From onward, it was considered to be the same species, but coastal ones retained the name "brown bear. Inland and coastal areas. Coastal bears tend to be larger because of a diet high in salmon. Alaska has a total of 30, Brown bears. At least coastal bears. A misprint above shows brown bears for Alaska which isn't the correct number.
The total number of Brown bears in the U. Another 25, lives in Canada. This number applies to the lower 48 states, not to Alaska. Alaska Peninsula brown bears are among the largest types of brown bear in the world. Brown bears on the Alaskan Peninsula usually feed on spawning salmonand use many different ways to catch them. These include waiting at the bottom of the falls for the fish to jump, or standing at the top of the falls waiting to catch the fish in midair sometimes in their mouths.
Bears also have much experience at chasing fish around and pinning the slippery animals with their claws. After the salmon runs, berries and grass make the mainstay of the bears' diets, after which they put on sufficient fat reserves and go into hibernation. Alaska Peninsula Brown Bear.
Get Alaska Peninsula Brown Bear essential facts below. Conservation status. Merriam  . Alaska Department of Fish and Game.Brown Bears, also known as Grizzly Bearsare large, powerful, and fast. They are apex predators and can typically only be threatened by humans. Despite their formidable strength, Brown Bears are omnivores who happily munch on fruit, grass, seeds, and even insects. If these facts make you think Brown Bears are cute and cuddly, think again-they have been known to be aggressive towards humans and its is not advised to try to interact with them.
Because they live in mountains and forests, hikers and campers often cross paths with Brown Bears. Yellowstone is home to both brown and black bears, which should not be confused as black bears are smaller and less aggressive, although it is considered dangerous to get near either. Black and Brown bears can look quite similar, so it is best to assume every bear in the wild can attack if it feels threatened or harassed.Alaskan Peninsula Brown Bear Hunt: The Footsteps of Giants
Remember Me. Create a new account. Scientific Name: Ursus arctos. Wild Status: Least Concern. Habitat: Forests, Mountains. Shelter: Burrows, Caves. Life Span: years.
Cool Facts: A Brown Bear feast on fish and leaves the carcasses on the forest floor where they are broken down and absorbed by plantlife. Bears and fish play an important role in supplying forests with nutrients such as phosphorus and nitrogen. Californian Grizzly Bears, which are immortalized on the California flag, are extinct.
Mother bears give birth during hibernationtypically to a set of twins. The offspring stay with the mother for years, after which the venture on their own and leave the mother to tend to give birth once more. Although many children's stories and shows tell us bears love to climb trees for honey, it is mostly a young bear's game. Adults can and do climb trees, but their size and weight limits them to only very large and sturdy trees. Details: Brown Bears, also known as Grizzly Bearsare large, powerful, and fast.
They are not considered endangered worldwide, but the number of Brown Bears in mainland America has dwindled due to destruction of the environment. In fact, some species unique to America have gone extinct, such as the California Grizzly. Learn About Snakes And Elephants!
Southern California Snake Parties! Riparian Zone. National Bird Day. Back to Kids-Zone. Remember Me Forgot Password? Link Text. Open link in a new tab. No search term specified. Showing recent items. Search or use up and down arrow keys to select an item.The brown bear Ursus arctos is the most widely distributed bear in the world.
It is found in North America and Eurasia.
There are several subspecies of the brown bear, including the grizzly bear and kodiak bear. The brown bear's closest relative is the polar bear Ursus maritimus.
One way to identify a brown bear is by the hump at the top of its shoulder. The hump is made of muscle and helps the bear dig a den. No other extant species of bear has this hump. Adult bears have short tails and sharp teeth with curved lower canines. Their skulls are heavy and concave. Brown bears claws are large, curved, and blunt.
Their claws are straighter and longer than those of black bears. Unlike the black bear, which readily climbs trees, the brown bear climbs less frequently due to its weight and claw structure. You might guess from their name that brown bears are brown. However, these bears can be brown, red, tan, cream, bicolored, or nearly black. Sometimes the tips of their fur are colored. Fur length varies according to the season. In the summer, their fur is shorter. In the winter, some brown bears' fur can reach 4 to 5 inches in length.
Brown bear size is highly variable, depending both on subspecies and food availability. An average-sized bear might range from 5 to 8 feet in length and weigh pounds, however, much smaller and much larger specimens occur. On average, polar bears are larger than brown bears, but a large grizzly and a polar bear are comparable. At one time, it was also found throughout Europe, in northern Africa, and as far south as Mexico in North America.
Brown bears inhabit a wide range of environments. They have been recorded living at altitudes ranging from sea level to m ft. They inhabit temperature forests, preferring semi-open regions, but also live on the tundraprairies, and estuaries.
Bears are omnivorous and naturally curious about eating nearly any creature.Subspecies : currently debated among taxonomists; see Gippoliti for discussion. Some rights reserved. Scientific Name Ursus is Latin for "bear" arctos comes from Greek arktosmeaning bear. Bon et al Cave Bears are sister to a clade of Brown and Polar Bears Agnarsson et al Estimates vary widely for timing of Brown Bear and Polar Bears divergence Lindqvist et al 1, toyears ago.
Appeared in lower U. Polar Bears are closest relatives of Brown Bears. Cultural History Popular cultural references Documentary appearances Walking with Giants: The Grizzlies of Siberia -PBS This episode from season 17 of the Nature program takes a look at bears that have never been with people before.
Showdown at Grizzly River -PBS This episode from season 18 of the Nature program takes viewers to Alaska, where the competition for salmon is fierce. Clash: Encounters of Bears and Wolves -PBS This episode from season 28 of the Nature program shows two fierce competitors as they test their strategies for survival in Yellowstone. Bears -Disneynature This film is based on a year in the life of a bear family, a mother and her two cubs, in Alaska. Contact Us Email the librarians at library sandiegozoo.
Tags: alaskabearbrown bearcarnivorecubfact sheetfurgrizzlyhibernationnorth americasan diego zoosdzg.The brown bear Ursus arctos is a bear species that is found across much of northern Eurasia and North America.
It is one of the largest living terrestrial members of the order Carnivorarivalled in size only by its closest relative, the polar bear Ursus maritimuswhich is much less variable in size and slightly larger on average. While the brown bear's range has shrunk and it has faced local extinctions, it remains listed as a least concern species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature IUCN with a total population of approximatelyAs of [update]this and the American black bear are the only bear species not classified as threatened by the IUCN.
Many of the populations in the southern parts of Eurasia are highly endangered as well. The brown bear is sometimes referred to as the bruinfrom Middle English. This name originated in the fable, History of Reynard the Foxtranslated by William Caxtonfrom Middle Dutch bruun or bruynmeaning brown the color. Brown bears are thought to have evolved from Ursus etruscus in Asia. Brown bears entered Europe aboutyears ago and North Africa shortly after.
Brown Bear – Ursus arctos
The species entered Alaskayears ago, though they did not move south until 13, years ago. Several paleontologists suggest the possibility of two separate brown bear migrations: inland brown bears, also known as grizzliesare thought to stem from narrow-skulled bears which migrated from northern Siberia to central Alaska and the rest of the continent, while Kodiak bears descend from broad-skulled bears from Kamchatka, which colonized the Alaskan peninsula.
Brown bear fossils discovered in OntarioOhioKentucky and Labrador show that the species occurred farther east than indicated in historic records. There are many methods used by scientists to define bear species and subspeciesas no one method is always effective. Brown bear taxonomy and subspecies classification has been described as "formidable and confusing" with few authorities listing the same specific set of subspecies.
Generally, genetic testing uses the word clade rather than species because a genetic test alone cannot define a biological species. Most genetic studies report on how closely related the bears are or their genetic distance. There are hundreds of obsolete brown bear subspecies, each with its own name, and this can become confusing; Hall lists 86 different types and even as many as 90 have been proposed.
As well as the exact number of overall brown bear subspecies, its precise relationship to the polar bear also remains in debate. The polar bear is a recent offshoot of the brown bear. The point at which the polar bear diverged from the brown bear is unclear, with estimations based on genetics and fossils ranging fromto 70, years ago, but most recent analysis has indicated that the polar bear split somewhere betweenandyears ago.
DNA analysis shows that, apart from recent human-caused population fragmentation,  brown bears in North America are generally part of a single interconnected population system, with the exception of the population or subspecies in the Kodiak Archipelagowhich has probably been isolated since the end of the last Ice Age.
For example, brown bears in any particular region of the Alaska coast are more closely related to adjacent grizzly bears than to distant populations of brown bears,  the morphological distinction seemingly driven by brown bears having access to a rich salmon food source, while grizzly bears live at higher elevation, or further from the coast, where plant material is the base of the diet.The grizzly bear Ursus arctos horribilis is a subspecies of brown bear found in North America.
While all grizzlies are brown bears, not all brown bears are grizzlies. According to some specialists, the grizzly bear lives inland, while the North American brown bear lives on the coast due to its reliance on food sources like salmon.
Meanwhile, the Kodiac brown bear lives in the Kodiac Archipelago of Alaska. While habitat affects their appearance and behavior, there is no genetic difference between these bears. Thus, most scientists simply refer to any brown bear living in North America as a "North American brown bear. Brown bears are easily distinguished from black bears by their large muscular shoulder hump, short ears, and rump that is lower than the shoulders.
Because they eat a lower protein diet, grizzly bears tend to be smaller than coastal brown bears, but they are still very large. The average female weighs between and kg to lbwhile males typically weigh between and kg to lb.
Grizzly bears range in color from blond to black. Most bears are brown with darker legs and gray or blond tipped hairs on their back and flanks. Their long claws are well-adapted to digging. Lewis and Clark described the bear as grisleywhich could have referred to the grizzled appearance of the bear's gray-or-gold-tipped fur, or to the gruesome ferocity of the animal. Originally, grizzly bears ranged across much of North America, from Mexico through northern Canada.
Hunting greatly reduced the bear's range. Presently, there are about 55, grizzly bears, mostly found in Alaska, Canada, Montana, Wyoming, and Idaho. The grizzly bear, together with the gray wolf, is the apex predator in its range. Grizzlies pursue large prey i. Grizzly bears are omnivorousso they also eat grasses, pine nuts, berries, and tubers. Grizzly bears scavenge carcasses, and they will eat human food and garbage when available.
While adult grizzlies don't have predators, cubs may be killed by wolves or by other brown bears. Grizzly bears reach sexual maturity around five years of age. They mate in the summer. Embryo implantation is delayed until the female seeks a den for the winter.
If she does not gain sufficient weight over the summer, she will have a miscarriage. Grizzly bears do not truly hibernatebut the female's energy is diverted toward gestation while she sleeps. She gives birth to one to four cubs in the den and nurses them until summer comes. The mother stays with her cubs and fiercely defends them for about two years, but then she chases them away and avoids them if the bears meet later in life.
A female does not mate when caring for her cubs, so the grizzly has a slow reproductive rate. Female bears live somewhat longer than males. The average lifespan is about 22 years for a male and 26 years for a female.
This disparity is most likely caused by the injuries male bears incur while fighting for mates. Grizzly bears can breed with other brown bears, black bears, and polar bears. However, these hybrids are rare because the species and subspecies don't usually have overlapping ranges. However, the grizzly is considered threatened in the United States and endangered in parts of Canada. Threats include habitat loss from human encroachment, human-bear conflict, pollution, and climate change. While the bear is protected in North America, reintroducing it into its previous range is a slow process, partly because the grizzly has such a slow life cycle.
Even so, the grizzly was "delisted" from the Endangered Species Act in June As an example of the species' recovery, the grizzly population in Yellowstone National Park has risen from bears in to about bears in Share Flipboard Email.